THE SCIENCE

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Facts are important. Especially in this political climate of doubt-mongering and scientific-slandering in an effort to promote industry and corporate agendas. FACTS matter. Uncovering the truth is a cornerstone of scientific inquiry. Sound, peer-reviewed, evidence-based science is more valuable than ever. 

The science is clear. Climate change is real, and the toxic chemicals we are exposed to daily are affecting the health of our children. We advised with experts in the fields of toxicology and public health to develop an evidence-based, peer-reviewed scientific literature review of the following chemicals and their known health outcomes.

Special thanks to Barbara Sattler, MD, and Michaella Pain, MPH, for sharing their expertise and wisdom with us. Thanks to Michaella for developing this literature review.


Need the facts?

chemicals of concern:

We highly recommend Green Science Policy Institute's Six Classes Approach to Reducing Chemical Harm LINK

Watch this series of short videos to learn about “Six Classes” of chemicals that are known to harm human health and the environment. Each video summarizes where one of these classes of chemicals is used, associated health problems, and how to reduce exposure. This knowledge will better equip large purchasers, manufacturers, retailers, designers, and consumers to take the steps needed to limit the use of these problematic chemicals.LINK

Bisphenol A (BPA)

Bisphenol A (BPA)  is a known endocrine disruptor and is classified as a known developmental and reproductive toxicant that can cause harm to the female reproductive system, including effects on the ovaries and eggs [49, 50] 

BPA is a known male and female reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor [1]

BPA exposure is associated with aggression and hyperactivity and reduction in
executive functioning skills in girls [3, 4]

BPA exposure is associated with recurrent miscarriages among women [5]

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. 
https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[50] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65 Warnings: Bisphenol A (BPA). https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/chemicals/bpachemicalspecificfactsheet.pdf

[1] Peretz, J., Vrooman, L., Ricke, W. A., Hunt, P. A., Ehrlich, S., Hauser, R., . . . Flaws, J. A. (2014). Bisphenol A and Reproductive Health: Update of Experimental and Human Evidence, 2007-2013. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122, 775-786.

[3] Braun, J. M., Yolton, K., Dietrich, K. N., Hornung, R., Ye, X., Calafat, A. M., & Lanphear, B. P. (2009). Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and early childhood behavior. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(12), 1945–1952.

[4] Braun, J. M., Kalkbrenner, A. E., Calafat, A. M., Yolton, K., Ye, X., Dietrich, K. N., . . . Lanphear, M., D. (2011).  Impact of Early-Life Bisphenol A Exposure on Behavior and Executive Function in Children. Pediatrics, 128(5), 873–882.

[5] Sugiura-Ogasawara, M., Ozaki, Y., Makino, T., & Suzumori, K. (2005). Exposure to Bisphenol A is Associated With Recurrent Miscarriage. Human Reproduction, 117, 1945-1952.         

Lead

Lead is a known endocrine disruptor and is listed as a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer and is a developmental and reproductive toxicant that can cause harm to both the male and female reproductive systems [49] 

The IARC has classified Lead as a Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) and a Group 2B Carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans) [48] 

Lead exposure is associated with intellectual impairment among children [7, 8]

Lead exposure is associated with decreased child cognitive function and its adverse health impacts also extend to cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects [9]    

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[7] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Low Level Lead Exposure Harms in Children: A renewed call for primary prevention. Report of the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[8] Schnaas, L., Rothenberg, S. J., Flores, M. F., Martinez, S., Hernandez, C., Osorio, E., . . . Perroni, E. (2006). Reduced Intellectual Development in Children with Prenatal Lead Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(5), 791-797.

[9] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Low Level Lead Exposure Harms in Children: A renewed call for primary prevention.            

Mercury and Methyl Mercury

Mercury and Methyl mercury compounds are known endocrine disruptors and classified developmental and reproductive toxicants that can cause birth defects and reproductive harm; prenatal exposure can affect brain development, learning and behavioral problems among children [49, 51] 

Methyl mercury is listed as a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer [49, 51] 

The IARC has classified Lead as a Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) and a Group 2B Carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans) [48] 

A study completed among women in San Francisco showed that concentrations of mercury were often higher in umbilical cord samples than in maternal samples [10]

Mercury exposure is associated with impaired neurodevelopment among children [11, 12]

Mercury exposure is associated with reduced cognitive performance [13]

Mercury exposure is a classified developmental toxicant (Prop 65 List) [2]  

 [49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[51] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65 Warnings: Mercury and Mercury Compounds. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/chemicals/mercurymethylmercurycompfactsheet.pdf

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[10] Morello-Frosch, R., Cushing, L. J., Jesdale, B. M., Schwartz, J. M., Guo, W., Guo, T., . . . Park, J. S. (2016). Environmental Chemicals in an Urban Population of Pregnant Women and Their Newborns from San Francisco. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(22), 12464-12472.

[11] Davidson, P. W., Strain, J. J., Myers, G. J., Thurston, S. W., Bonham, M. P., Shamlaye, C. F., . . . Clarkson, T. W. (2008). Neurodevelopmental effects of maternal nutritional status and exposure to methylmercury from eating fish during pregnancy. Neurotoxicology, 29(5), 767–75.

[12] Lederman, S. A., Jones, R. L., Caldwell, K. L., Rauh, V., Sheets, S. E., Tang, D., . . . Perera, F. P. (2008). Relation between cord blood mercury levels and early child development in a World Trade Center cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(8), 1085–1091.

[13] Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., White, R. F., Debes, F., Araki, S., Yokoyama, K., . . . Jorgensen, P. J. (1997). Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 19(6), 417–428.

[2] OEHHA (2016). Chemical Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. State of California Proposition 65.            

Phthalates

Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors and many are known to the State of California to cause cancer and are classified as developmental and reproductive toxicants. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), for example, is a classified carcinogen that can cause developmental and male reproductive toxicity [49] 

The IARC has classified Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as a Group 2B Carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans) [48]

Phthalate exposure is associated with shortened gestational age [40]

Phthalate exposure is associated with impaired neurodevelopment in girls and a reduction in executive function in children aged 4-9 years [41, 42]

Phthalate exposure is associated with anti-androgenic adverse effects on the male reproductive tract [43]

Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) exposure can begin in utero and is significantly associated with a shorter pregnancy duration [44]     

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[40] Latini, G., De Felice, C., Presta, G., Del Vecchio, A., Paris, I., Ruggieri, F., & Pietro, M. (2003). In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and duration of human pregnancy. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(14), 1783–1785.

[41] Engel, S. M., Zhu, C., Berkowitz, G. S., Calafat, A. M., Silva, M. J., Miodovnik, A., & Woff, M. S. (2009).  Prenatal phthalate exposure and performance on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic birth cohort. Neurotoxicology, 30(4), 522–528.

[42] Engel, S. M., Miodovnik, A., Canfield, R. L., Zhu, C., Silva, M. J., Calafat, A. M., & Wolff, M. S. (2010). Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(4), 565–571.

[43] Swan, S. H., Main, K. M., Lui, F., Stewart, S. L., Kruse, R. L., Calafat, A. M., . . . The Study for Future Families Research Team. (2015). Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1056-1061.

[44] Latini, G., De Felice, C., Presta, G., Del Vecchio, A., Paris, I., Ruggieri, F., & Pietro, M. (2003). In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and duration of human pregnancy. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(14), 1783–1785.

[47] Zota, A. R., Phillips, C. A., & Mitro, S. D. (2016). Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003-2010. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(10).            

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

A study completed among women in San Francisco showed that Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) concentrations were often higher in umbilical cord samples than in maternal samples [10]

PBDE prenatal exposure is associated with impaired neurodevelopment and reduction in sustained attention among children [14, 15]

PBDE exposure is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes [16]

PBDE exposure is associated with a significant decrease in birth weight [17]

PBDE exposure is associated with reduced IQ [18]    

[10] Morello-Frosch, R., Cushing, L. J., Jesdale, B. M., Schwartz, J. M., Guo, W., Guo, T., . . . Park, J. S. (2016). Environmental Chemicals in an Urban Population of Pregnant Women and Their Newborns from San Francisco. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(22), 12464-12472.

[32] Wang, A., Padula, A., Sirota, M., & Woodruff, T. J. (2016). Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health: The Importance of Chemical Exposures. Fertility and Sterility, 106(4), 905-929.

[14] Herbstman, J. B., Sjödin, A., Kurzon, M., Lederman, S. A., Jones, R. S., Rauh, V., . . . Perera, F. P. (2010). Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(5), 712–719.

[15] Roze, E., Meijer, L., Bakker, A., Van Braeckel, K. N., Sauer, P. J., & Bos, A. F. (2009). Prenatal exposure to organohalogens, including brominated flame retardants, influences motor, cognitive, and behavioral performance at school age. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(12), 1953–1958.

[16] Chevrier, J., Harley, K. G., Bradman, A., Gharbi, M., Sjodin, A., & Eskenazi, B. (2010). Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118, 1444-1449.

[17] Harley, K. G., Chevrier, J., Schall, R. A., Sjodin, A., Bradman, A., & Eskenazi, B. (2011). Association of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and infant birth weight. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174(8), 885-892.

[18] Lam, J., Lanphear, B. P., Bellinger, D., Axelrad, D. A., McPartland, J., Sutton, P.,. . .Woodruff, T. J. (2017). Developmental PBDE Exposure and IQ/ADHD in Childhood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(8), 086001.             

Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)/Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOAs)

Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) / Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOAs)  are known endocrine disruptors and are classified as developmental and reproductive toxicant [49] 

The IARC has classified PFOAs as a Group 2B Carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans) [48] 

PFC exposure is associated with reduced birth weight and fetal growth [27]

PFOAs are known reproductive toxicants and are associated with decreased fetal growth in both human and nonhuman species [28, 29]

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[27] Washino, N., Saijo, Y., Sasaki, S., Kato, S., Ban, S., Konishi, K., . . . Kishi, R. (2009). Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(4), 660–667.

[28] Lam, J., Koustas, E., Johnson, P. I., Atchley, D. S., Sen, S., Robinson, K. A., . . . Woodruff, T. J. (2014). The Navigation Guide - evidence-based medicine meets environmental health: integration of animal and human evidence for PFOA effects on fetal growth. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(10), 1040-1051.

[29] Lam, J., Koustas, E., Sutton, P., Johnson, P. I., Atchley, D. S., Sen, S., . . . Woodruff, T. J. (2014). The Navigation Guide--Evidence-Based Medicine Meets Environmental Health: Integration of Animal and Human Evidence for PFOA Effects on Fetal Growth. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(10), 1040-1051.            

Pesticides

Many pesticides are known endocrine disruptors and are classified as carcinogens.  Chlordane, for example, is listed as a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is listed as a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer and is classified as a developmental and reproductive toxicant affecting both males and females [49] 

The IARC has classified DDT as a Group 2A Carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) and Chlordane as a Group 2B Carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans) [48] 

Organophosphate Pesticide exposure is associated with impaired working memory capabilities among children aged 7 years [30]

Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Pesticide exposure is associated with impaired fetal growth [31]

Chlorpyrifos Pesticide exposure among children shows that those children are significantly more likely to experience Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index delays, attention problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder problems, and pervasive developmental disorder problems [32]

Prenatal Organophosphate Pesticide exposure is associated with reduced cognitive development and perceptual reasoning [33]

Prenatal DDT exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancers among male children [34]

Organophosphate pesticide exposure is associated with decreased sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, as well as altered reproductive hormone levels [35]

Chlordane Pesticide exposure is associated with increased subfertility (inability to conceive for > 1 year) and decreased sperm concentration and motility [36]

Organochlorine Pesticide exposure is associated with poor sperm quality [37]
Organochlorine Pesticide exposure is associated with an increase in reproductive diseases, including endometriosis [38, 39]    

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[30] Bouchard, M. F., Chevrier, J., Harley, K. G., Kogut, K., Vedar, M., Calderon, N., . . . Eskenazi, B. (2011). Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8), 1189–1195.

[31] Whyatt, R. M., Rauh, V., Barr, D. B., Camann, D. E., Andrews, H. F., Garfinkel, R., . . . Perera, F. P. (2014). Prenatal Insecticide Exposures and Birth Weight and Length Among an Urban Minority Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(10), 1125–1132.

[32] Rauh, V. A., Garfinkel, R., Perera, F. P., Andrews, H. F., Hoepner, L., Barr, D. B., . . . Whyatt, R. W. (2006). Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children. Pediatrics, 118(6), e1845–e1859.

[33] Engel, S. M., Wetmur, J., Chen, J., Zhu, C., Barr, D. B., Canfield, R. L. & Wolff, M. S. (2011). Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119, 1182-1188.

[34] Cohn, B. A., Cirillo, P. M., & Christianson, R. E. (2010). Prenatal DDT Exposure and Testicular Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 65(3), 127–34. 

[35] Melgarejo, M., Mendiola, J., Koch, H. M., Monino-Garcia, M., Noguera-Velasco, J. A., & Torres-Cantero, A. M. (2015). Associations between urinary organophosphates pesticide metabolite levels and reproductive parameters in men from an infertility clinic. Environmental Research, 137, 292-298. 

[36] Hond, El. D., Tournaye, H., De Sutter, P., Ombelet, W., Baeyens, W., Covaci, A., Cox, B., Nawrot, T. S., Van Larebeke, N., D’Hooghe, T. (2015). Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients. Environmental International, 84, 154-160. 

[37] Swan, H. S., Kruse, R. L., Liu, F., Barr, D. B., Drobnis, E. Z., Redmon, J. B., Wang, C., Brazil, C., Overstreet, J. W., & the Study for Future Families Research Group. (2003). Semen Quality in Relation to Biomarkers to Pesticide Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(12), 1478-1484. 

[38] Upson, K., De Roos, AL. J., Thompson, M. L., Sathyanarayana, S., Scholes, D., Barr, D. B. & Holt, V. L. (2013). Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case-Control Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(11-12), 1319-1324. 

[39] Cooney, M. A., Louis, G. M. B., Hegiger, M. L., Vexler, A., & Kostyniak, P. J. (2010). Organochlorine Pesticides and Endometriosis. Reproductive Toxicology, 30(3), 365-369.             

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)  are known endocrine disruptors and are classified as carcinogens, developmental and reproductive toxicants [49] 

The IARC has classified Lead as a Group 1 Carcinogen (carcinogenic to humans) [48] 

A study completed among women in San Francisco showed that PCBs were often higher in umbilical cord samples than in maternal samples [10]

PCB exposure is associated with increased risk of maternal breast cancer before age 50 [19]

PCBs mimic estrogen and are implicated in the origins of endometriosis in animal models and human studies [20]

PCB exposure is associated with decreased semen quality [21]

PCB exposure is associated with low birth weight [22]

PCB exposure is associated with reduced intelligence quotient score [23]

PCB exposure is associated with increased impulsivity, decreased concentration, and reduced verbal, pictorial, and auditory working memory [24]

PCB prenatal exposure is associated with ADHD-like behaviors in school-aged children [25]

PCBs are classified developmental toxicants and carcinogens (Prop 65 List) [2]

PCB exposure is associated with decreased sperm count and quality [26]     

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[10] Morello-Frosch, R., Cushing, L. J., Jesdale, B. M., Schwartz, J. M., Guo, W., Guo, T., . . . Park, J. S. (2016). Environmental Chemicals in an Urban Population of Pregnant Women and Their Newborns from San Francisco. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(22), 12464-12472.

[19] Cohn, B. A., Terry, M. B., Plumb, M., & Cirillo, P. M. (2012). Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners measured shortly after giving birth and subsequent risk of maternal breast cancer before age 50. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 136(1), 267–75.

[20] Gore, A. C., Chappell, V. A., Fenton, S. E., Flaws, S. E., Nadal, A., Prins, G. S. . . . Zoeller, R. T. (2015). EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals. Endocrine Reviews, 36(6), E1-E150.

[21] Dallinga, J. W., Moonen, E. J., Dumoulin, J. C., Evers, J. L., Geraedts, J. P., & Kleinjans, J. C. (2002). Decreased human semen quality and organochlorine compounds in blood. Human Reproduction, 17(8), 1973–1979.

[22] Baibergenova, A., Kudyakov, R., Zdeb, M., & Carpenter, D. O. (2003). Low birth weight and residential proximity to PCB-contaminated waste sites. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1352–1357.

[23] Stewart, P. W., Lonky, E., Reihman, J., Pagano, J., Gump, B. B., & Darvil, l. T. (2008). The relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and intelligence (IQ) in 9-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(10), 1416–1422.

[24] Jacobson, J. L., & Jacobson, S. W. (2003). Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and attention at school age. The Journal of Pediatrics, 143(6), 780–788.

[25] Sagiv, S. K., Thurston, S. W., Bellinger, D. C., Tolbert, P. E., Altshul, L. M. & Korrick, S. A. (2010). Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(5), 593-601.

[2] OEHHA (2016). Chemical Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. State of California Proposition 65.

[26] Dallinga, J. W., Moonen, E. J., Dumoulin, J. C., Evers, J. L., Geraedts, J. P., & Kleinjans, J. C. (2002). Decreased human semen quality and organochlorine compounds in blood. Human Reproduction, 17(8), 1973–1979.            

Triclosan

 Triclosan is a probable endocrine disruptor and developmental toxicant [6]    

[6] Johnson, P. I., Koustas, E., Vesterinen, H. M., Sutton, P., Atchley, D. S. Kim, A. N., . . . Woodruff, T. J. (2016). Application of the Navigation Guide Systematic Review Methodology to the Evidence for Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Triclosan. Environment International, 92, 716-728.          

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Solvents

Many Solvents and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)  are known endocrine disruptors and carcinogens causing developmental and reproductive harm. Benzene, for example, is a classified carcinogen that can cause leukemia, developmental and male reproductive toxicity [49, 52] 

Formaldehyde is known to the State of California to cause cancer, including leukemia and cancers of the nose, throat, and sinuses [49, 53] 

The IARC has classified Formaldehyde, Benzene, and 1,3-butadiene all as Group 1 Carcinogens (carcinogenic to humans).  Tetrachloroethylene has been classified as a Group 2A Carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) and a Group 2B Carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to humans). Methylene chloride is classified as a Group 2A Carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) [48] 

Tetrachloroethylene exposure is associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal loss [45]    

[48] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2017. International Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-120. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[52] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Fact Sheet: Benzene.  https://www.p65warnings.ca.gov/fact-sheets/benzene

[53] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2017. Proposition 65 Warnings: Formaldehyde. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/chemicals/formaldehydefactsheet_0.pdf

[45] Kyyronen, P., Taskinen, H., Lindbohm, M. L., Hemminki, K., & Heinone, O. P. (1989). Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among women exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 43(4), 346–351.

[46] Wang, A., Padula, A., Sirota, M., & Woodruff, T. J. (2016). Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health: The Importance of Chemical Exposures. Fertility and Sterility, 106(4), 905-929.